Articles

The Global Search for Education: The Top 10

2014-08-25-cmrubinworldhummingbirdsanna4500.jpg 

“The Global Search for Education series takes important issues related to global education and gives them context.” — Adam Steiner 

Diane Ravitch, Howard Gardner, Sir Ken Robinson, Pak Tee Ng, Pasi Sahlberg, Tony Wagner, Yong Zhao, Krista Kiuru, Peter Vesterbacka, Randi Weingarten, Jonathan Jansen, Michael Fullan and Andy Hargreaves, among others, have been chosen for our first Global Search for Education Top 10 List.We asked Adam Steiner, a technology integration specialist for the Holliston Public Schools in Holliston, Massachusetts and a doctoral researcher at Boston College, to make an assessment of the over 250 interviews we’ve published and give us his view of our top ten articles.Adam is the co-author with Elizabeth Stringer Keefe of a forthcoming book on Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and technology (scheduled release date of March 2015 from Rowman & Littlefield). He joins me to discuss the Top 10 in today’s edition of The Global Search for Education.

Adam, I like your first selection – my 2012 interview with Diane Ravitch. How have The Global Search for Education articles helped you as an educator?

The Global Search for Education series takes important issues related to global education and gives them context. Given the various threads of my personal and professional life, the interviews have helped to put it all in a broader context and give it a larger meaning.

As a teacher, your 2012 interview with Diane Ravitch, in particular, represents the need for teaching to remain a respected profession. I know that my first few years of teaching were such a challenge and would have been impossible if I felt the community did not respect my work. Diane Ravitch rightly argues that a well-respected teaching profession requires higher expectations for teachers and stricter requirements for entry into the profession.

1. The Global Search for Education: The Education Debate 2012 with Diane Ravitch

2014-08-25-cmrubinworldhummingbirdsanna2500.jpg
“Diane Ravitch rightly argues that a well-respected teaching profession requires higher expectations for teachers and stricter requirements for entry into the profession.” — Adam Steiner
Can I assume that the articles you selected as Nos. 2 and 3 on your list are related to your experience as a technology integration specialist?

Absolutely. Over the past five years, my professional focus has shifted from classroom teacher to technology integration specialist. My particular focus has been on the use of assistive technology in partnership with the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework to support inclusive classrooms. Singapore is an amazing example of a country that is using technology to help transform its educational system and there is no better person to speak to this than Pak Tee Ng, Professor at the University of Singapore – the best known expert on the Singaporean education system. He emphasizes that Singapore is seeking out uses of technology that transform teaching and not just prop up traditional modes. Tony Wagner continues this theme in my third choice when he talks about technology as a source of pedagogical transformation. In your interview, Tony talks about visiting a school system that had invested tens of thousands in interactive whiteboards in classrooms. Despite the innovative technology, the teaching had not changed – the devices were simply being used as sophisticated test prep tools. As a technology integration specialist, I find myself promoting and supporting the purchase of classroom technology. However, I am also constantly checking to insure that my work is promoting innovative teaching and not just equipment.

2. The Global Search for Education: Got Tech? – Singapore with Pak Tee Ng

3. The Global Search for Education: Education Technology with Tony Wagner

I was pleased that my interview with Yong Zhao made no. 4 on your list. As an education researcher, what interested you most about this article?

China is on a continual journey of self-examination of its own schools. There is no better guide in this irony than Yong Zhao, University of Oregon Professor and expert on the Chinese educational system. Dr. Zhao emphasized efforts to lessen the gap between wealthy and poor, powerful and powerless, a topic that has huge implications for the United States and our disturbing inequality. He described a pernicious selection of students into a hierarchical arrangement of schools and a need for a broad cultural shift that would measure the value of a school intrinsically rather than in comparison to other schools. The growing emphasis on large-scale standardized testing in the US would seem to run contrary to this effort.

4. The Global Search for Education: Focus on China with Yong Zhao

2014-08-25-cmrubinworldhummingbirdsanna500.jpg
“Jonathan Jansen’s South African experience has powerful ramifications for any country looking to make significant reform. He emphasizes the importance of approaching reform with an eye toward systemic change rather than tackling issues in a piecemeal fashion.” — Adam Steiner
No. 5 on your list – a look at Finland’s education system for inspiration in the Global Search series.

I had the privilege to hear Dr. Pasi Sahlberg speak at Boston College and this interview illuminated several of the topics he discussed. Three points hit home with me. First, Finland has made a massive investment in teaching such that the profession is now one of the most sought-after jobs in the country. Second, there is an emphasis on equitable schooling that reaches every child rather than in boutique private or quasi-public schools. Third, emotional well-being is valued over test results. My fear is that the United States is moving in precisely the opposite direction on all three fronts.

5. The Global Search for Education: More Focus on Finland with Pasi Sahlberg

I was very pleased that you nominated my interview with Jonathan Jansen for the Top 10.

Jonathan Jansen’s South African experience has powerful ramifications for any country looking to make significant reform. He emphasizes the importance of approaching reform with an eye toward systemic change rather than tackling issues in a piecemeal fashion. Jansen also emphasizes the public-private partnership as key to making significant change.

6. The Global Search For Education: Education Is My Right – South Africa with Jonathan Jansen

As a parent, I know fun and learning resonates with you.

Helping my children with their homework, driving them to a soccer or gymnastics practice, or watching them listen to music or draw a picture – sometimes I feel overwhelmed with the many hats I wear, but there have been several interviews in the Global Search series that have helped me to manage these competing needs. This sixth interview I selected looked at technology and “fun learning” with several Finnish education leaders, including Krista Kiuru, Finnish Minister of Education and Science, and Peter Vesterbacka and Sanna Lukander of Rovio Entertainment, the creators of Angry Birds. We need to find ways for our kids to learn and to discover in fun and interesting ways. This is a challenge given the nature of elementary school education these days. How to find time for “fun learning” when there is so much math and literacy-focused homework to do?

7. The Global Search for Education: Fun and Learning with Krista Kiuru, Peter Vesterbacka, Sanna Lukander

2014-08-25-cmrubinworldhummingbirdsanna3500.jpg
“Howard Gardner covers a great deal of territory in this interview, from the role of the federal government in education to teacher education to charter schools, but what stands out most to me is his statement: “…education in the arts needs no justification in terms of ‘transfer’ to other subjects or to its generation of wealth; it is a ‘good’ in itself.” — Adam Steiner
Howard Gardner had more to do with inspiring the Global Search series than he will ever know – tell me about no. 8 on your list.

8. The Global Search for Education: The Education Debate 2012 with Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner covers a great deal of territory in this interview, from the role of the federal government in education to teacher education to charter schools, but what stands out most to me is his statement: “…education in the arts needs no justification in terms of ‘transfer’ to other subjects or to its generation of wealth; it is a ‘good’ in itself.” This is a powerful reminder that we need to build in time for our kids to enjoy the arts. If schools are going to put primary emphasis on English and math skills, this becomes even more important.

We couldn’t have a Top 10 list without Sir Ken Robinson.

You had an amazing conversation with Sir Ken Robinson, in which he describes the arts as a discipline in the same way that math, science and English are disciplines. It adds another layer to Howard Gardner’s argument about the importance of the arts. Sir Ken also emphasizes the value of approaching art and other subjects in an interdisciplinary fashion.

9. The Global Search for Education: More Arts Please with Sir Ken Robinson

Michael Fullan and Andy Hargreaves have contributed so much great work to this series – why did you select this particular interview about the teaching profession?

For me, teaching has been too often a lonely profession. I have felt that my development as a professional was distinctly separate from the needs of my colleagues. This Global Search interview, in particular, addressed this loneliness and the need to improve the profession of teaching with a collective, collaborative approach. It approached the topic from the practical side by engaging Randi Weingarten, President of the American Federation of Teachers, and from the scholarly side by connecting with Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan, professors and researchers on the cutting edge of educational change.

10. The Global Search for Education: In Search of Professionals – Part 1 with Michael Fullan, Andy Hargreaves, Randi Weingarten

2014-08-25-cmrubinworldsteinerheadshot300.jpg
C. M. Rubin and Adam Steiner
 

How Cloud ERP Can Aid Educational Practices

“Aimee Claire talks about how the same ERP (Enterprise Resource Management) programs that work for businesses can also work in educational practices.”

by Aimee Claire 

It’s almost a given that kids are smarter than adults when it comes to adopting and using new technology. Whether it’s in the realm of gaming, writing and producing music, videos and films, or just knowing much more in general about the wired society through social media, kids always seem to have a head start. Once new technology and ideas are taught, they can ramp up their knowledge base with a few pad taps or mouse clicks.

So introducing them to ERP—Enterprise Resource Planning—could give them some major advantages in their educational development that could give those who are interested in developing careers in the IT industry a head start.

Introducing ERP for education

The complexities of running a school, college, or university lend themselves perfectly to using ERP. It is a software solution that integrates data sources from a range of departments where it is deployed to give managers a real time overview of what is happening, has happened, and needs to happen. Data inputted by one department—for example, administration looking at student attendance—can be seen instantly by those checking student achievement without the need for data to be updated by inputting for the individual department.

Instead of having to wait for reports to be produced, perhaps using classic paper and ink technology, there can be instant examination of data and trends by senior management, giving far more control over the enterprise and identifying weaknesses that can be addressed much more quickly. Not only is this good for the institution, it’s good for the students—especially those who can be identified as needing additional academic or pastoral support.

Head in the Cloud

It’s a classic expression for people whose minds seem to be elsewhere rather than focusing on what they should be. Yet it could easily become an expression of appreciation as the development of Cloud Technology, the provision of on-demand services through the Internet, is becoming a go-to Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solution.

As with any technology, the more students understand what it can do, and do for them as well as the academic institution, the better equipped they are to move forward after their education to develop careers in IT. Even if they do not go into that industry, the benefits of Cloud ERP are rolled out across all industry sectors and they would be well positioned to take advantage of this with the knowledge base about ERP gained from their studies.

Kentucky Cloud

The state of Kentucky has rolled out its financial management system to Cloud ERP and considers it to be a real success in terms of making its services more reliable, as well as helping to reduce costs. The state’s associate commissioner for the Office of Knowledge, Information and Data Services, David Couch, said:

“Cost reductions are a benefit of cloud-computing, but for Kentucky schools, our primary driver was increasing the reliability of services beyond what our aging on-premise infrastructure could provide.”

As Cloud Computing develops further, there are many advantages that academic institutions could offer to their own infrastructure and to teach their students.

30 Apps Perfect For BYOD Classrooms

Katie Lepi from Edudemic gives us a list of 30 terrific BYOD apps in the following article. She’s also kind enough to provide a Symbaloo to explore in her article that will take you straight to the apps themselves, so go have some fun!”

via Edudemic

BYOD classrooms can address a number of issues. It can solve the problem of not having enough (or any) devices for your classroom. It can enable students to do web-based work when they might not have otherwise been able to. It can allow them to do work on the same device at home and at school. But it doesn’t come without issue.

One of the issues that we’ve heard about from many teachers is that since students come in with different devices that run on different platforms, finding apps and tools that work across a wide array of devices is a necessary evil. The handy symbaloo below takes a look at a bunch of different apps that work across a variety of devices – perfect for the BYOD classroom. A listing of the apps is below, or you can click on the link above to use the interactive Symbaloo to reach each site.

Great Apps For BYOD Classrooms

  • Skitch
  • Evernote
  • Today’s Meet
  • Infuse Learning
  • Zondle
  • Socrative
  • Gaggle
  • Vimeo
  • Brain Pop
  • Live Binders
  • Edmodo
  • Whiteboard
  • Class Dojo
  • Quizlet
  • Khan Academy
  • Bit.ly
  • Twitter
  • Popplet
  • Sliderocket
  • Wikispaces
  • Poll Everywhere
  • VoiceThready
  • Studyblue
  • QR Stuff
  • Code Academy
  • Scratch (MIT)
  • Tynker
  • EasyBib
  • Discovery
  • Padlet
  • Atomic Learning
  • The App Builder

Click the Symbaloo below to visit the interactive version and get the clickable links to each app!

Screen Shot 2013-10-30 at 2.45.36 PM

The Biggest Lie Students Tell Me (and How to Turn It Around)

José Vilson is a middle school math teacher and coach, and he believes in possibility. As children, many of us (including myself) were brought up with a portion of the academic intelligentsia of our school days making us more aware of our weaknesses than our strengths. In many cases we were raised with mindsets of limitation rather than possibility. That’s why Vilson believes that his students speak a falsehood when they proclaim ‘I can’t.’ His mission is to turn that thinking around in them, and he tells us how it can be done in the following article he wrote for Edutopia.”

 

via Edutopia

It’s easy to say that students lie to teachers all the time. Frankly, everyone, including teachers, has a lie in them, and these untruths keep the schooling process rolling along. When adults say, for instance, that they develop rules with the students, chances are that students often develop rules that teachers already thought of anyway. Or, when adults say that a student can’t use the restroom during certain parts of the day “Just because,” rather than “Because the hallways is crowded, and I don’t want you distracted from the lesson in the classroom,” that’s just one more micro-fib in a collage of fibs that we tell children.

But my push today is to talk about the lies that students tell, specifically the ones that keep them from growing into the best students possible.

“I Can’t Do This!”

This statement is perhaps the worst possible offender, and we have layers to this that we ought to unravel. If students say it often enough, they can prevent themselves from giving an honest effort toward learning the material. The student gets to fall back while the teacher explains and re-explains the material, which might have gone from a more implicit, constructivist explanation to a straight-up “This is what you do!”

Thus, it also works as a signal to the teacher that, perhaps, the student can’t learn the material. The teacher, human and serving 30 students at a time, will focus away and leave that student to his or her own devices rather than insisting, “Try your best.” The teacher might stay away from the student, hovering over and hoping that her or she will come back into the fold again. The student often won’t.

The discussion around “I can’t do this” can be broken down into three general levels:

  • They genuinely don’t understand the material.
  • They’ve had a long day and just don’t have the energy to work any more.
  • They have a situation at home that currently distracts them.

There are levels to “I can’t do this” that don’t get discussed, either. The current discussion around lack of effort focuses on “grit,” the cure for lack of effort — and with good reason. Paul Tough’s book How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and The Hidden Power of Character gives you a sense that he believes, with the right level of effort and conditions that help translate effort into success, any child can overcome his or her disposition.

Yet for some, the argument has taken a twist to mean that, rather than trying to address structural and pedagogical issues in our schools, we ought to focus only on the attitudes espoused by our students. If they try hard enough, that argument goes, and if they work longer and harder than their peers, they too will surmount the incredible odds against them and acquire a proper education.

To an extent, I believe this, as I am a product of a poverty-stricken neighborhood. I was fortunate to go to good public and private schools (including Head Start) throughout my formative years. With enough effort, I made it out of the hood — only to teach in a neighborhood similar to the one where I used to live. My teaching reflects this, too. I have high expectations for my students, and I keep in mind that I should ask questions before getting emotionally bent out of shape around a student’s lack of compliance with the assignment.

Strategies for Comprehension

Thus, here are some solutions for the student who says, “I can’t do this!”

1. Ask why before all else.

Don’t just ask, “Why?” and let the answer linger. Often, the student will just say, “Because I don’t.” Your next question could be, “What part do you get?” Once you reach the point where they’re unsure, ask follow-up questions from that point onward. Push for them to answer questions rather than listen to your personal line of reasoning out the material. If they can vocalize the process and demonstrate understanding before you take them through it step by step, then let them do it. And keep asking why in the meantime.

2. Give breaks within reason.

Some of my students just need a genuine break. This isn’t about being soft, though I try not to run my classroom like a jail. If adults constantly bombard them with speeches they call lessons, then these students have had an entirely passive experience of education that doesn’t allow them to think for themselves. If you see a student who looks tired or has a hard time concentrating, firmly ask him or her to take a break just to breathe. Letting students take a small break might energize them again.

3. Make modifications to how you teach and how they learn.

The push for higher standards, rigor and accountability often means that our students’ humanness gets pushed to the wayside in some classrooms. We try to force students to see the material the way we estimate that a test-maker would, rather than developing lessons that work for as many students as possible. For instance, instead of using definitions from the textbooks, let students create explanations for the words. These explanations should come as close as possible to the definitions that you would create.

4. Teach students the art of the good question.

Unlike many of my colleagues, I do believe in smart questions (and not-so-smart questions). We ought to teach students how to ask questions that clarify, expound or enhance meaning. Students ask a lot of questions, and we ought to encourage them to get in the habit of questioning. Yet, we can differentiate between asking a question that adds value and a question that doesn’t.

All together, this means we can only control our own actions as educators in the classroom. We can teach students to persevere. We can teach students to work harder, and to see the fruits of their efforts in the learning they do. We can ask them to translate these attitudes to their lives overall.

We as educators must also keep in mind the vast personal experiences they bring into class, especially if they don’t get what we’re trying to teach them. Sometimes, there are a lot of things they’re not getting for reasons we can’t imagine, and it’s our job to provide sustenance in the meantime.

JOSÉ VILSON’S BLOG

3 Keys To Making BYOD Work For Your Classroom

Many teacher who want to truly bring successful Bring-Your-Own-Device practices into their classrooms struggle with how to go about it in the right way. There are so many things to consider, but luckily we have Ilan Paretsky to give us some advice in the following Edudemic article. ”

 

via Edudemic

BYOD continues to change the learning ecosystem, which includes administrators, teachers, faculty, students and school IT. Today, schools supplement books and whiteboards with smartphones, web portals and other technologies that make education an interactive experience. The consumerization of IT (CoIT) is driving widespread adoption of mobile devices throughout K-12 programs, supplementing school-owned desktops and laptops.

While there are many benefits of BYOD and CoIT in education, getting everyone involved in the learning process (including parents) to collaborate in and outside the classroom is the most compelling. Another advantage is that BYOD allows schools to stretch IT resources, and do more with less. And even with tighter budgets, they can overcome technical and socio-economic barriers that may impact a quality education.

More than a technology initiative, however, BYOD can be an equalizer; it can democratize education and enable universal learning environments, accessible to everyone. The combination of affordable devices and growing adoption of BYOD in K-12 is enabling schools to succeed in achieving their 1-to-1 computing goals.

Among those served by BYOD – school administrators, teachers, students, parents and IT personnel – a successful program requires centralization, browser-based accessibility, and mobility.

Centralization

Schools must centralize their technology infrastructure to extend the life of their Windows desktops, applications and legacy systems. By centralizing these resources, IT can provide secure access to learning curriculum across a broad range of school-issued computers and devices in addition to those owned by teachers, students and parents.

Moreover, centralization enables understaffed IT teams to manage day-to-day operations more efficiently and cost-effectively. Aside from cost savings, however, the real value of centralization is the flexibility for teachers and students to be more productive in and outside the classroom.

Browser-Based Accessibility

Today’s HTML5-compliant Web browsers provide universal, device-agnostic access to school resources. One result is that schools no longer have to manage endpoint devices and install software and updates. Google’s Chrome, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Mozilla’s Firefox and Apple’s Safari all support HTML5 and are widely available on smartphones, phablets, tablets and computers. Browser-based accessibility removes the technical barriers of installing and managing device specific apps, reduces costs and most importantly gives teachers and students flexible options to connect, collaborate and learn.

Mobility

The pervasiveness of cloud computing and mobility will continue to provide new opportunities, streamline processes and create unique learning environments. However, the utility of mobile devices will only be as good as the resources schools can make easily accessible. Remote access technology  enables schools to deliver next-generation education and curriculum to anyone, from anywhere using an array of devices – all via a web browser.

As students, teachers and administrators increasingly use their own computing devices, schools must rethink how they can take advantage of centralized IT resources, browser-based accessibility and mobility to garner efficiency and identify new opportunities that ensure a positive learning experience.


About the Author

Vice President of Marketing at Ericom Software, responsible for the global marketing activities of the company. Prior to joining Ericom in 2005, Paretsky held various leadership positions in marketing, business development, project management and software development in the global software and telecom industries. Paretsky holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Computer Sciences from Bar-Ilan University in Tel-Aviv, and an MBA from the University of Heriot-Watt – Edinburgh Business School.

5 Ways to Make Class Discussions More Exciting

“How do you make classroom discussion more exciting? Dr. Richard Curwin has the answer. Dr. Curwin is the director of the graduate program for behaviour disorder at David Yellin College. A few of the exercises that he profiles in this Edutopia article are similar to ones I’ve used in theatre studies to connect and engage with others. Try them with students—they’re fun and effective in equal measures!”

via Edutopia

Classroom discussions have been a staple of teaching forever, beginning with Socrates. I have taught using discussions, been a student in discussions, and observed other teachers’ discussions thousands of times — at least. Some have been boring, stifling or tedious enough to put me to sleep. Others have been so stimulating that I was sad to see them end. The difference between the two is obviously how interesting the topic is, but equally important is the level of student participation.

It’s not enough for students to simply pay attention — they need to be active participants to generate one of those great discussions that end far too quickly for both the teacher and students. The worst types of discussions are serial one-on-one talk between a student and teacher, leaving the rest of the class out of the process. Many students stop listening, begin to fade or disengage during this flawed procedure.

The best discussions keep everyone active, either by sharing or thinking. Even those students who rarely, if ever, contribute can still participate in other ways. Here are five of my favorite ways to design discussions in a dynamic and exciting manner.

1. Lightning Rounds

Just the name “lightning round” suggests energy. Make it even more dramatic by playing up the concept of speed, fun and excitement. Have your discussion questions prepared in advance so that you can ask them faster. Short-answer questions obviously work best for this technique. Students have 30 seconds (or a more appropriate time for your particular class) to answer. They can either answer or pass — and no negativity is associated with passing. Ask the questions rapidly while growing the anticipation for each next question by imitating quiz show lightning rounds: “Are you ready for the next question? Here it comes.” Ask the question before calling on a student so that all students must be ready to answer. The lightning round should take no longer than ten minutes, the approximate time that the energy begins to diminish.

2. Throw the Ball

When you ask a discussion question, call on students by letting them catch a ball. With young children, you can use a beach ball and roll it to students in a circle. Older students can catch a beach ball or nerf football. This way of calling on students can either be a lot of fun and full of energy, or it can be a disaster. Be sure to keep the throwing distance short enough to prevent chaos. Make the rules clear and stop if they are broken:

  1. Do not intercept the ball.
  2. Do not throw the ball at another student.
  3. Do not try to break anything in the class with the ball.

In spite of the potential danger with using a ball, I have seen this done with much success and great student involvement. A variation that is safer and fun for grades 1-3 is to pass a teddy bear to the student who will answer the next question.

3. Group Answers

Two commonly used discussion techniques can be put together to allow a discussion that involves everybody at the same time. One is to form small groups of about three students. When the teacher asks a discussion question, every group has a small discussion of its own to come up with an answer. Questions of complexity work best with this method. Add to that the use of small cards with each having a method of group identification. After allowing enough time for each group to develop its answer, randomly pick a card and let that group give their answer. You can pick more than one card for each question. When the answer has been completed, put the used card back in the deck, so that no group can relax and think that their turn is over.

4. Agreements

Keep each question going longer by engaging more students in the discussion. When the first student answers a question, ask another student if he or she agrees or disagrees with that answer. Then ask another student, and keep going until at least five students have participated in each question.

5. Questionnaires

A fun way to discuss famous people or fictional characters is to choose someone you are studying. Divide the class into groups of two or three, and have each group come up with three to five questions they would like to ask that person in an interview style. All group members should agree on all the questions. Each group then passes their questions to another group so that all groups have someone else’s questions. Each group then has the task of answering one question in writing, with full agreement, and in a way they imagine the person might answer. Papers are changed until all questions are answered. Then encourage each group to share their questions and the answers they received.

One final point about good discussions: most students can easily hear the teacher, but depending on room arrangement, it can often be difficult for students to hear each other. Have you ever tried to follow a press conference on television when you could not hear the question, only the answer? Our response ranges from frustration to giving up listening. Be sure to repeat student answers if any class member can’t hear it.

I’m sure that every reader has either a variation of these discussion methods or some great ones of your own. I hope that many of you are willing to add yours to my humble list. Let’s create a dynamic discussion of ideas in this space.

DR. RICHARD CURWIN’S BLOG

Can Virtual Reality Be Used to Tackle Racism?

“Implicit racism—a bias the holder is unaware of—can be reduced after spending a short time in virtual reality. In the following BBC article, Melissa Hogenboom asks if this could possibly have a longer lasting effect. Read on to find out more …”

via BBC News

It’s an uncomfortable truth but scientists say most people have an ingrained racial bias. Now a team has shown that a short stint in a virtual world could reduce it, but could this have a longer lasting effect?

Racism is an issue that still pervades many societies.

In England and Wales, there have been 106 fatal racist attacks since the killing of teenager Stephen Lawrence in 1993 according to the Institute of Race Relations. It also reports thousands of racist incidents recorded by the police each year.

The issue is complicated by the fact that many biases are ingrained over long periods of time.

Scientists have now found that this ingrained racial bias was reduced when participants were immersed in a virtual body of a different race.

To test their implicit racism, a team led by Mel Slater at the University of Barcelona gave participants what’s called an implicit association test several days before the experiment. They were given the same test again after their experience in virtual reality.

It was only the participants who had been placed in a dark virtual body that showed this decrease.

Another unrelated study had similar results. A team found that when a dark rubber hand was stroked at the same time as the participant’s own (out of sight) hand was touched, implicit racism subsequently decreased. This work was led by Manos Tsakiris at Royal Holloway University of London.

Both teams say it’s promising that two separate experimental settings show this effect.

Participant in virtual world

Participants’ body movements were tracked using a motion-capture suit

It might be surprising to some white people that they show preference for white faces over black faces in the implicit test. This could be for a number of reasons, says Prof Slater.

It doesn’t mean someone is explicitly racist, he says, rather it reflects how their brain has been wired based on the society in which they grew up.

If the media frequently reports negatively on a given “out-group”, for example, then somehow the brain picks up these associations which are reproduced in the implicit bias test.

He refers to virtual reality as an “empathy generating machine” to give people experiences they can’t have in any other way.

The question remains whether or not these findings could ever be applied in the real world.

Prof Slater believes they could: “If the effect is shown to be long-lasting this might provide tools for serious immersive games that attempt to foster pro-social behaviour and empathy,” he argues.

Prof Tsakiris agrees. He believes that achieving similar results could even be possible without an experimental set-up.

“It’s about the idea of sharing sensory experiences with people that might be different from you. This sharing – especially when there is some kind of synchronicity between people’s bodies – it can bring people closer together.

“Doing things with others seems to function as a social glue. The obvious thing would be to have no segregation in society, not to have any schools dominated by one ethnic group,” Prof Tsakiris adds.

“It’s about the idea of sharing sensory experiences with people that might be different from you . . . it can bring people closer together.”

It is still unclear how long-lasting these effects would be. Prof Slater says this will be hard to pin down, but rolling the technology out into the real world in the first instance is a possibility.

“It may be used to help people who have these implicit biases, to recognise they have them but also to reduce them.”

But Antony Greenwald, at the University of Washington in Seattle, says it’s still too early to be optimistic because the negative associations measured by the implicit racism test “are pretty durable”.

“The best interpretation is that this makes some sort of temporary change in how a person represents the categories [of race].

“We live in a world in which we are surrounded by things that cause us to develop associations that produce stereotypes. It’s like the air we breathe; we can’t help talking it in,” Prof Greenwald adds.

However, Ziada Ayorech, from King’s College London says the research shows that a negative racial bias could be detuned over time and could even become positive.

“When we think of something as implicit racial bias you think that it’s already ingrained and there’s nothing you can do, but in reality these studies show that by simply having people relate to someone with a different ethnicity – you can already change that.

“New associations will be built. It’s a stepping stone, for sure.”

But outside an experimental setting, tackling ingrained racism remains difficult, especially because it’s hidden, says Neil Chakraborti, a criminologist at the University of Leicester who works with victims of racist attacks.

“Precisely because it is almost impossible to label it as an offence, latent racism is rarely reported. You see people normalise these kinds of experiences; it’s become a routine part of being different,” he says.

This issue of prejudice is something Dal Babu feels he has experienced in the police force – an organisation he says should be representative of the society it aims to protect.

He was one of the UK’s top ethnic minority officers at the Metropolitan Police, and was critical of the lack of black and Asian recruits and how few were in senior positions.

“The irony and most commonly quoted phrase by Sir Robert Peel (founder of the Met Police) is that the public are the police and the police are the public,” he says.

But despite his efforts, the majority of senior police officers “remain stubbornly white”, Mr Babu adds.

It’s clear that there is no one simple way to tackle an issue as complex as racism. Until researchers find that reducing an innate bias can be reproduced and sustained, an awareness of it seems a crucial first step.

And while its use outside the lab may be some way off, scientists say that virtual reality provides a stepping stone towards increased empathy with others in the real world.

How To Make Students Better Online Researchers

This article written by Sahiba Pahwa and published on EdTechReview offers up a practical strategy for developing Information Fluency skills in students, specifically in regards to researching online. The article includes a useful set of links for teachers to explore that are great resources for this.”

 

via EdTechReview

How many times has it been that you’re trying to search for a specific site or on a specific topic too hard but in the end you end up finding nothing. Have you ever questioned yourself why this happens? Well as much as the internet is the easiest and quickest way to acquire abundance of knowledge, it comes with some cons too. For one the task of finding the exact and right place is hard, and then it’s not only collecting the right data but also organizing it in an orderly manner.

For example, you’re aiming to search for the reasons for the great recession that just occurred in the economy. Now just about typing the word recession you may get millions of information sites but it does not help your purpose, not even close to it. So what would you need to do? You would have to type a term that explains about that specific recession like typing “recession in US in early 2000s” your search would become much exact and information would be more clear. Further you would want to know what happened in that recession, it’s effects and the conclusion you draw from it. So you see we have methodically categorized our research.

You see a very easy task like doing an online research also needs some amount of skills and I can help you in acknowledging what those skills are and how to go about it.

So the first and foremost step towards it is asking the right questions to get the right answers. These simple steps can make your research more efficient and effective manner. (Also learn how Using Twitter for Online Research is a great idea)

How to make students better online researchers?

Planning the map inside your head is the most important task of a man. Without a plan a person is just a clueless wanderer. And into the vast oceans of information a wanderer is just bound to be lost. Map in your mind, what is research all about, what are the key points and what you hope to achieve as the conclusion of this research and does your information smoothly flows proving towards your conclusion? This makes the job of searching easier.

Use unique, specific terms

It is simply amazing how many Web pages are returned when performing a search. You might guess that the terms tiger are relatively specialized. A Google search of those terms returned 2,440,000 results! To reduce the number of pages returned, use unique terms that are specific to the subject you are researching.

Use quotation marks for exact phrases

I often remember parts of phrases I have seen on a Web page or part of a quotation I want to track down. Using quotation marks around a phrase will return only those exact words in that order. It’s one of the best ways to limit the pages returned..

Don’t use common words

The major problem starts when you have totally bizarre and uncommon words that may give you millions of results but none related to your research. Trust me that happens a lot! So be careful with what words you choose.

Maximize AutoComplete

Ordering search terms from general to specific in the search box will display helpful results in a drop-down list and is the most efficient way to use AutoComplete. Selecting the appropriate item as it appears will save time typing. You have several choices for how the AutoComplete feature works.

Selecting the most apt site

Many of the online researchers know which site they often will find the right kind of information they require. This makes the elimination of unwanted sites easier and hence improving your speed and quality of research.

Elimination of unwanted Information through speedy evaluation

One should not only have the skill to select the right site but also eliminating the unwanted or vague information provided by the internet through speedy and critical reading and evaluation.

After all these steps I’m very sure your search would become a much easier task and you will see great changes in the quality and quantity of your research.

Useful Links For Searchers:

Here are some links that offer some resources for teachers trying to teach students the digital literacies involved with searching.

• Safe Search Engines for Your Kids
• How to Spot a Fake Website
• Great Tech Expectations: What Should Elementary Students be Able to do and When?
• Boolify Project: An Educational Boolean Web Search Tool (very visual)
• Boolean Searching on the Internet
• Rockwell Schrock’s Boolean Machine
• Web Search Strategies in Plain English

How PBS KIDS Puts Play at the Center of Digital Content Development

“Play is a powerful component of childhood development. It allows children to explore, make connections, and develop a better understanding of the world and themselves. Susan DeWitt shares her insights about using play to implement or reinforce learning. She also provides links to some wonderful classroom resources for readers to preview and use in their classrooms or homes. ”

via Fred Rogers Center

In 1999, I participated in a play-testing session with preschoolers from a Head Start center in Arlington, Virginia. I was just a few weeks into my job as a production associate at PBS KIDS, and we were testing the soon-to-launch Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood website.

When I sat down with 4-year-old Marisa, she cautiously moved the mouse across the Neighborhood of Make-Believe. She hovered briefly over X the Owl, when suddenly the character on screen raised his wing and waved. Marisa let go of the mouse, pushed back her chair, jumped up and started waving back. For the next 10 minutes, this was all Marisa wanted to do: make X wave at her, jump up from her chair, wave back, and smile happily.

In 1999, we were in the very early days of the internet; Marisa had never played with a computer before our research session, and I question whether many of today’s 4-year-olds would be enthralled by an animated gif. But that moment with Marisa has remained with me throughout my years in digital content development at PBS KIDS. It’s a reminder that games for preschoolers don’t need to be overly complicated to engage children in meaningful play, and that our strongest engagement opportunities often begin in very natural play patterns.

Many years and technologies later, my team has probably participated in hundreds of usability sessions, and we can still be surprised by our youngest visitors. The difference between “engaging” and “overwhelming” to one room of 5-year-olds was entirely dependent on a background color. After countless conversation about the right “STOP” button for our video player, we discovered the question was moot: when 3-year-olds are finished watching, they just run away from the computer (or, maybe just click on something else entirely).

“Play gives children a chance to practice what they are learning. They have to play with what they know to be true in order to find out more, and then they can use what they learn in new forms of play.”
Fred Rogers

The “wheel” on the pbskids.org homepage that links to characters? Not unlike Marisa playing with X the Owl, we’ve watched children spin that wheel just so they can identify the characters when they sweep past, approaching our main navigational element as an activity in itself. As our creative director regularly says to interface designers, “Approach everything like it’s a game.” Preschoolers are coming up with new ways to play every time they visit a PBS KIDS experience. Part of our job is keeping the controls accessible, and putting kids in the driver’s seat to play.

Fred Rogers taught us that “play gives children a chance to practice what they are learning.” Preschoolers bring their own life experiences and daily skill development to every activity, and that’s no different for digital media. Once while testing a finger-painting activity on a smart phone, I watched a little boy use his pointer finger to scribble the color green all over the screen. He then lifted his hand and turned it over, looking to see if he now had green paint on his finger. How did this activity compare to the one he might have done at his table earlier in the day?

And I love it when a new technology emerges and our producers can begin adding new play elements into their games. When cameras became ubiquitous in desktops and laptops, our partners at WGBH developed a Curious George game in which kids could jump up and down to make George do the same on screen. In a Peg + Cat game from the Fred Rogers Company, 9ate7Productions, and CloudKid, children can wave their hands to capture and sort different shapes. And with Wild Kratts, kids can now mimic the behavior of bats and snakes through the camera in order to see how the animals move in the wild. Not only do these games incorporate very natural play patterns for children—jumping, motion—but I’m particularly interested to see how this type of play could reinforce learning.

The Kratt Brothers are now in production on a new tablet game in which kids need to help orangutans swing from vine to vine. In this case, they can use the tilt mechanic, getting a handle on how much momentum and speed is required to make that motion by moving the tablet itself. We’re also testing what types of smartphone and tablet experiences could better promote interactions between preschoolers and their parents—not just on the screen, but away from the computer as well.

At PBS KIDS, this intersection between screen-based play and hands-on activities is central to our mission, and true to the legacy that pioneers like Fred Rogers set for us. I once watched a child hop out of the room like a caracal after play-testing a Wild Kratts game. How can we inspire children to continue to play with new skills and concepts they have encountered in educational media after the screen is turned off?

About the Author

As Vice President of PBS KIDS Digital, Sara DeWitt oversees day-to-day development of PBS’ multiplatform content for kids and families, including the Kidscreen- and Webby-award winning pbskids.org, PBS KIDS’ suite of mobile apps, streaming video, interactive whiteboard games, and more. Having joined PBS Digital in 1999, DeWitt has worked with producers on a variety of award-winning television program sites, such as Mister Rogers’ NeighborhoodCurious George, and Arthur. Before coming to PBS KIDS, DeWitt worked as a preschool teacher and studied leadership opportunities for teenagers in rural areas.

To MOOC, or Not to MOOC (Infographic)

“This infographic was sent from Juliet Rich for Top Colleges Online. To MOOC or Not to MOOC—that is indeed the question. One wonders if online learning could possibly have helped Hamlet or any of Shakespeare’s tragic figures lead less tumultuous lives. We’ll never know, but what we do know is that today MOOCs have their share of supporters and critics alike. Looks like we’ll just have to make up our own minds, and this creative infographic should help a little.”

 

To-MOOC-or-not